In Situ Liquid Stage with Heating or Biasing for TEM Studies

Liquid Phase Electron Microscopy

Liquid Phase Electron Microscopy (LPEM) is becoming an increasingly popular mode of examination for both materials and life scientists. Stream from DENSsolutions paves the way for you to carry out dynamic studies within your TEM. With the ability to observe directly the behaviour of materials or cells in a liquid environment and the ability to change the temperature or bias in reaction cell Stream opens up a host of new experiments where you can directly observe dynamic changes as they take place.

Stream Models

Stream models are made to fit most common TEMs including

  • Thermo/FEI
  • JEOL

Nano-Cell Controlled Liquid Environment

The new Nano-Cell overcomes many problems relating to liquid flow, by directing liquid flow from inlet to outlet with full control over liquid movement including flow rate and liquid thickness.

The design also allows for the introduction of gas bubbles which further improves the spatial resolution. These gas bubbles flow in a controlled manner and push out the liquid.

This carefully designed Nano-Cell allows you to obtain reliable data faster and improves the quality of your results.

The Nano-Cell is comprised of a top chip (A) and bottom chip (B) that for a selaed compartment with electron transparent wondows (C and D). The sample is located on the bottom window and the type of experiment that you perform is dictated by the bottom chip.

Precision Fluidic Control

The highly defined liquid channel with no dead volume enables you to rapidly change the sample environment.

The design of the Stream see the liquid guided over the sample by a defined channel. Furthermore, the user has precise control over the speed, pressure and direction of the liquid inside the cell

Pressure Based Liquid Flow

Using a pressure-based liquid pump, the liquid flow and pressure can be precisely set by the user via pressurised inlet and outlets. Furthermore, the pressure based liquid pump is extremely responsive to changes in flow rate. In conjunction with the purpose-designed Nano-Cell, any changes you make to experimental conditions take effect is just seconds.

The pressure based liquid flow also provides a far more stable flow rate. Once the desired flow rate has been set, this type of system outperforms even high performance syringe pumps.

Furthermore, the pressure-based flow can be used to flush away or dissolve unwanted bubbles, a feature that is unique to the DENSSolutions Stream in situ TEM platform.

Reactive Chemical Environments

Normally inert gases are used to pressurise the liquid. However, reactive gases can be used to saturate the liquid for more advanced experiments and studies.

Modular Design

The Stream has been designed so that users can easily service the system. Each vacuum component can be easily removed for cleaning or replaced. Each individual component has been precision manufactured to ensure vacuum tight sealing and fitment with the TEM goniometer.

In addition, the liquid path consists of tubing that can be replaced in just minutes to guarantee against cross contamination between experiments when flushing may not be totally effective.


Stream comes in two models:

  1. Liquid plus heating or
  2. liquid plus biasing

The modular design allows you to upgrade from one to the other.

Typical Application Areas

Stream has the potential to benefit researchers in many fields including:

  • Energy storage
  • Corrosion
  • Electrochemistry
  • Nanomaterials
  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology